Algorithms

Someone asked me what an algorithm is. My explanation was a set of steps to follow in order to accomplish a certain task. Coming up with an algorithm is usually not difficult for most easily computable calculations. Why are they important? Because computers are discrete devices, they need to be told exactly what to do and how to do it concisely. That’s why a lot of research focuses on making algorithms more efficient, leading to a reduction in computation time. I’ve been spending time learning, re-learning, and coding some simple algorithms. I usually whiteboard the solution, code it and write down in my notebook.

Some Well-Known Algorithms:

 

 

Code for Miami

Tonight, I went to my first Code for Miami meeting, a volunteer group that meets weekly working on web and mobile projects that help Miami-Dade local government and civic organizations. The meetings take place at “The Lab” a collaborative space for innovation in Miami’s Art/Design District. It was refreshing to see so many people using their technology skills to provide benefit to the community. I’ll be working on a project that involves building a portal to display data collected from local government agencies. I’m really excited to put my skills to use.

codeformiami

Amtrak Acela

I recently took Amtrak Acela from New York to Boston, and I have to say I really enjoyed my trip. Train service in the United States must be high speed and comfortable, the northeast corridor is paving the way.

 

ImageImage

 

 

 

Part 1: Understanding the Difference between Complex and Complicated Systems

Last March I was driving across the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge into one of the most dynamic cities in the world. Sitting next to my good friend and former classmate, I commented what a complex design problem the bridge had posed, with two major crossings and requirements to withstand earthquakes and carry over 240,000 vehicles per day. Being an engineer, she pointed out that the bridge was not a complex bridge at all.  While it was undoubtedly difficult to build, it was not complex. Rather, it was a complicated structure.  The engineers were experts; using their professional knowledge on build bridging and previously documented learning, they were able to apply existing design principles to build an amazing structure that has stood since 1936.

Distinguishing between a complicated and complex problem or system is not an easy task for most. As Sargut and McGrath argue, if individuals in a business are unable to differentiate between these two distinct terms, it will be very expensive for a business in the long run. It’s necessary the distinction be made because how you approach a problem changes drastically depending on the type of system. What is the difference between complicated and complex? Simply put, a complicated system is predictable if it follows patterns that can be observed. This leads to a system that is definable such that past behavior predicts future behavior.

As my friend put it, intricate is probably the best word to describe a complex system. Complex systems are unpredictable and sometimes undefinable. In a complex system the initial conditions can lead to different outcomes. The question then becomes how can we define a complex system.  The three most important characteristics of a complex system are multiplicity, interdependence and diversity.  Multiplicity refers to the number of potentially interacting entities, interdependence to how connected these elements are, and diversity to how heterogeneous each element is.

Manufacturing is extremely complex, with a lot of interdependent pieces.  If we ignore those pieces our ability to solve problems falls apart. At times we are faced with problems that transcend a particular part of the process on which we are focused. If the scope of the problem is not realized, our ability to solve it is severely impaired because we may be searching for solution that address symptoms and not root causes.

How do you solve complex problems in contrast to their complicated counterparts?

Complicated problems have blueprints; you can draw on expert knowledge and previous experience to create a solution. You can perhaps consider these types of problems the ones where you can open a textbook and find the answer, or in the case of a business, consult an expert on the subject.

Complex problems are not so simple.  There is no blueprint, no readily modifiable solution. The solution is determined on a case by case basis. When it comes to complex systems, no two situations are alike. Forcing a pre-made solution to a complex problem can bring disastrous consequences, since using the wrong metrics on a complex system can lead to inefficiencies and a false sense of security which I will discuss in another section.

 

References

1. Sargut, Gökçe, and Rita McGrath. “September 2011.” Harvard Business Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2014.

2. Walji, Aleem. “Complicated vs. Complex Part I: Why Is Scaling Up So Elusive in Development: What Can Be Done?” The World Bank. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2014.
 
Disclaimer: This work may not be modified or published for profit without written consent from the author: S. Adderly

Martin Luther King and the March on Washington

MLKMarch

The Rev. Martin Luther king was one of the most famous Civil Rights Activists of the 20th century. Born in Atlanta, Georgia, King worked tireless to organize nonviolent civil disobedience to promote the advancement of civil rights. He is most known for helping organize the 1963 March on Washington, one of the largest human rights rallies in United States history. There King went into American history as he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech urging for integration and equal rights for African-Americans. August 8, 1963 was a watershed moment in the civil rights movement bringing more support to end discriminatory laws. Many credit the March on Washington with getting the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed. The Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination against racial, religious minorities and women signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. The subsequent Voting Rights Act prohibited having any qualifications to vote based on race or color.

I think what’s hard to grasp is 50 years ago discrimination would have been legal. It’s hard to imagine that 50 plus years ago, I would have to drink out of separate water fountain from my non-black friends and I wouldn’t be allowed to eat in certain places. It truly is amazing how far we’ve come in this period from segregation to the election of the first black president. Today is indeed a special day, 50 year ago it marked the beginning of a dream that was finally realized.

bankofamericamlk

BingMLK

Why does negative information proliferate faster than positive information?

In a recent study of anti-vaccine twitter campaigns by Penn State researchers, it was concluded that anti-vaccination twitter posts spread quicker than posts supporting vaccination. It felt to me that this study was a small example of a larger phenomenon; doesn’t negative information always spread faster in all instances? Why is this the case? I think it has to do with the fact that negative information could have greater ramifications on the society as a whole. For instance, when there is negative information about topics such as transportation, the economy, or health-care, everyone might be impacted now or in the future in some way. When gas prices go up, news spreads quickly because of the large majority of people that own cars and are not looking forward to the burden of having to pay higher gas prices. Is the converse true when gas prices go down? There’s typically not much of a discussion when prices go down, perhaps occasional tweets or facebook posts about the lower prices of gasoline, going around in excitement, but not too often.

Each year the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) releases crash test information for new vehicles, is it not the cars that perform very poorly that get highlighted in web discussions, and on the evening news. They also publish a list of cars that performed very well, but I’d argue you would rather be more interested in which cars performed poorly, and then you’d check how the car you own or want to buy performed, and then you’ll look at the list of best performing cars.

Gossip plays a factor as well in spreading negative information faster, in the working-world, what’s more of a devastating topic to discuss someone getting laid-off or fired or someone being promoted. The former is more engaging due to the fact that most employees fear being made redundant, while many may not as be interested in talk of a promotion due to added duties or personal disinterest in the person who was promoted.

Emotionally does positive information make people feel bad or intimidated, heaven forbid that people actively wish for negative information to be generated for someone they know. I had a friend who actually deleted their facebook account because they told me they could not stand seeing other people happy, perhaps that’s the extreme case and requires counseling. I asked them if they would prefer negative information instead and they said no of course not, however they did mention they preferred hearing no positive information due to personal disinterest.

Perhaps, fictional madman news magnate Elliot Carver from the Bond movie Tomorrow Never Dies said it well:  “There’s no news, like bad news!” 

Further Reading:

http://news.psu.edu/story/271680/2013/04/04/health-and-medicine/anti-vaccination-tweets-spread-more-easily-positive

http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/does-social-responsibility-help-protect-a-companys-reputation/